Python Inheritance

Python inheritance is a fundamental concept in OOP that allows you to create a new class (derived or child class) based on an existing class (base or parent class). Inheritance enables the child class to inherit attributes and methods from the parent class.

The child class can also add its own attributes and methods or override inherited ones, tailoring the behavior to its specific requirements. This concept enhances the organization of your code, making it more modular, maintainable, and efficient.

To get a better understanding, let’s imagine a scenario: consider a software application for a zoo management system. In this system, you can create a base class called Animal, which includes attributes and methods common to all animals, such as name, age, and make_sound(). Now, you can derive specialized classes like Lion, Elephant, and Giraffe from the Animal class. Each of these child classes inherits the general attributes and methods from Animal class.

However, they can also have their own unique attributes, like mane_color for the Lion class, and override the make_sound() method to produce the specific sounds associated with each animal. This inheritance hierarchy making it intuitive to extend the zoo's animal population within the software.

Now that you have a fundamental grasp of Python inheritance, let’s move forward and explore how this concept is put into practical use in real-life situations, illustrated through syntax.

Python Inheritance Syntax

The Python inheritance syntax is simple and easy to understand. Here is the syntax:

class BaseClass:
     # Attributes and methods of the base class

class SubClass(BaseClass):
     # Attributes and methods specific to the subclass

Here, BaseClass is the superclass, and SubClass is the subclass that inherits from BaseClass. The SubClass can access the attributes and methods of BaseClass and can also define its own attributes and methods. This is the basic syntax for implementing inheritance in Python.

You’ve now delved into Python inheritance syntax, and you’ve also gained a fundamental understanding of how inheritance works. Now, let’s move forward and explore practical examples of Python inheritance so you can see how it operates in real-life scenarios.

I. Create a Parent Class

Creating a parent class in inheritance, often referred to as a superclass, serves as a blueprint for other classes, known as derived classes. This base class typically contains common attributes and methods that are shared among multiple related classes.

Child classes receive and acquire these properties from the parent class, which aids in preventing redundant code and streamlining the handling of commonly used functionality. This concept is a fundamental aspect of OOP and enables developers to structure their code in a hierarchical manner. Consider below illustration:

Example Code
class Parent_Animal: def __init__(self, name, species): = name self.species = species def make_sound(self, sound): print(f"{} makes a {sound} sound") def eat(self, food): print(f"{} is eating {food}") animal = Parent_Animal("Rex", "Dog") print(f"{} is a {animal.species}") animal.make_sound("bark")"dog food")

For this example, we’ve created a class called Parent_Animal. It has three methods: __init__, make_sound, and eat. The __init__ method is a constructor that initializes instances of the class with two attributes, name and species. These attributes represent the name and species of an animal, which are provided as arguments when an object of this class is created.

The make_sound method takes a sound argument and prints a statement indicating the sound the animal makes, incorporating the name attribute. The eat method also takes an argument, food, and prints a message indicating that the animal is eating the specified food, again using the name attribute.

We then create an instance of the Parent_Animal class named animal with the name Rex and species Dog. We access the attributes and methods of this parent class by calling them on the animal object. We print out the name and species of the animal.

Rex is a Dog
Rex makes a bark sound
Rex is eating dog food

As you can see, this example exemplifies the basic concepts of class creation, object instantiation, and method invocation, all within the context of a parent class.

II. Create a Child Class

Creating a child class means defining a new class that inherits attributes and methods from an existing super class. This inheritance allows the derived class to reuse and extend the functionality of the parent class.

To achieve this, you can utilize the parent class mentioned above and create a Cat class that inherits the attributes from the base class. Subsequently, you can display this information on the screen. Let’s illustrate this example below:

Example Code
class Parent_Animal: def __init__(self, name, species): = name self.species = species def make_sound(self, sound): print(f"{} makes a {sound} sound") def eat(self, food): print(f"{} is eating {food}") class Cat(Parent_Animal): def __init__(self, name): super().__init__(name, "Cat") cat = Cat("kitty") print(f"{} is a {cat.species}") cat.make_sound("meaw")"cat food")

In this example, we have defined two classes: Parent_Animal and Cat. The Parent_Animal class serves as a base class. It has an __init__ that initializes instances of this class with two attributes: name and species. It also includes two methods, make_sound and eat. The make_sound takes a sound argument and prints a message. The eat method takes a food argument and prints a message.

The Cat class is a child class that inherits from Parent_Animal class. It has its __init__ , but it also calls the parent class’s __init__ using super() to set the species attribute to Cat. This way, when we create a Cat object, it automatically has a species of Cat without explicitly specifying it.

In the last part of the code, we create an instance of the Cat class named kitty. We then print information about the kitty object, such as its name and species. Finally, we use the inherited methods make_sound and eat.

kitty is a Cat
kitty makes a meaw sound
kitty is eating cat food

The method described above illustrates how derived classes can acquire the attributes and methods from their super classes within Python inheritance system.

Python Inheritance Types

Now you now know how to create parent and child classes and learned how to access them, let’s take the next step and dive into the various types of Python inheritance. This aspect of inheritance is crucial because it allows you to understand how different inheritance types are applied in various scenarios.

I. Single Inheritance In Python

In single inheritance, you encounter a situation where your derived class receives properties and behaviors exclusively from a single parent class. In this specific form of inheritance, each class can inherit characteristics and functionalities from only a single other class, resulting in a well-defined and uncomplicated inheritance structure.

This simplifies the structure of your code, making it easier for you to understand and manage. Think of it as a parent passing down their characteristics and traits to a single descendant, creating a direct line of inheritance. For example:

Example Code
class Vehicle: def __init__(self, name, color): = name self.color = color def display_info(self): print(f"Name: {}, Color: {self.color}") class Car(Vehicle): def __init__(self, name, color, model): super().__init__(name, color) self.model = model def display_car_info(self): self.display_info() print(f"Model: {self.model}") my_car = Car("Toyota", "Blue", "Camry") my_car.display_car_info()

Here, we have created two classes: Vehicle and Car, and we’ll explain how they work together. First, we have the Vehicle class, which has an __init__ to initialize the vehicle’s name and color attributes. It also contains a display_info method, which prints out the name and color of the vehicle when called.

Next, we have the Car class, which is a child class of Vehicle. It inherits the attributes and methods. The Car class has its own __init__, which takes three parameters: name, color, and model. It uses super() to call the __init__ of Vehicle to initialize the name and color attributes. Additionally, it initializes its own model attribute. The Car class also has a display_car_info method, which first calls the display_info method from the Vehicle class to display the name and color of the car and then prints the car’s model.

In the main part of the code, we create an instance of the Car class called my_car with the name Toyota, color Blue, and model Camry. Finally, we call the display_car_info on my_car to display all the information about the car, including its name, color, and model.

Name: Toyota, Color: Blue
Model: Camry

As you can observe, through this method, you can readily acquire attributes, whether they are integers, strings, or information, but this inheritance occurs between two classes, one serving as the parent and the other as the child.

II. Multiple Inheritance In Python

In object-oriented programming, multiple inheritance is a concept that allows your derived class to inherit attributes and methods from more than one superclass. This approach enhances adaptability by enabling you to combine features from various parent classes.

However, keep in mind that this approach can introduce complexity, especially when multiple parent classes define methods or attributes with the same name. To make the most of multiple inheritance, it’s crucial to manage and resolve conflicts, ensuring that the class hierarchy remains coherent and functional. For instance:

Example Code
class BookInfo: def __init__(self, name, author): = name = author def display_info(self): print(f"Book: {}, Author: {}") class BookColor: def __init__(self, color): self.color = color def display_color(self): print(f"Color: {self.color}") class BookYear: def __init__(self, year): self.year = year def display_year(self): print(f"Year: {self.year}") class Book(BookInfo, BookColor, BookYear): def __init__(self, name, author, color, year): BookInfo.__init__(self, name, author) BookColor.__init__(self, color) BookYear.__init__(self, year) def display_book_info(self): self.display_info() self.display_color() self.display_year() my_book = Book("The Great Gatsby", "F. Scott Fitzgerald", "Blue", 1925) my_book.display_book_info()

For this example, we crafted a program that illustrates the concept of multiple inheritance using an example related to books. We start by defining three parent classes: BookInfo, BookColor, and BookYear. The BookInfo is responsible for storing and displaying information about the book’s name and author. The BookColor manages the color of the book, while BookYear handles the publication year. Each of these classes has their own constructor to initialize their respective attributes and methods to display related information.

Next, we define a child class called Book, which inherits from all three parent classes: BookInfo, BookColor, and BookYear. This child class combines the attributes and methods of its parent classes, enabling it to store and display information about the book’s name, author, color, and year of publication.

We create an instance of the Book class called my_book, providing it with specific values for the book’s name, author, color, and year. Finally, we call the display_book_info() method on my_book, which, in turn, calls the display methods from its parent classes to print a comprehensive summary of the book's information, including its name, author, color, and publication year.

Book: The Great Gatsby, Author: F. Scott Fitzgerald
Color: Blue
Year: 1925

This example illustrates how multiple inheritance can be used to efficiently combine and utilize attributes and methods from different base classes within a single child class.

III. Multilevel Inheritance

You can also inherit properties and functions with its base class of its base class by using multilevel inheritance. This means that a class not only inherits from its immediate parent class but can also inherit from the parent class of its parent class, creating a multi-level inheritance chain.

It’s like inheriting traits not only from your parents but also from your grandparents in a family tree of classes, creating a hierarchical and organized class hierarchy. Consider the following illustration:

Example Code
class Country: def __init__(self, name): = name def display_country(self): print(f"Country: {}") class City(Country): def __init__(self, name, population): super().__init__(name) self.population = population def display_city(self): self.display_country() print(f"Population: {self.population}") class FoodCity(City): def __init__(self, name, population, food): super().__init__(name, population) = food def display_food_city(self): self.display_city() print(f"Food Specialty: {}") new_york = FoodCity("New York", 8400000, "Pizza") new_york.display_food_city()

In this example, we defined three classes: Country, City, and FoodCity. Country is the parent class, City inherits from Country, and FoodCity inherits from City. Each class adds specific attributes related to countries, cities, and their food specialties. The display_ methods are used to display the information in a structured manner.

Finally, we create an instance of FoodCity for New York and display its attributes using the display_food_city method, which cascades through the inheritance chain to display all relevant information.

Country: New York
Population: 8400000
Food Specialty: Pizza

This multilevel inheritance approach allows you to model relationships between countries, cities, and specialized cities with ease, organizing and displaying relevant information in a hierarchical manner.

IV. Hierarchical Inheritance

Hierarchical inheritance in Python, enables you to create a class that serves as a super for multiple derived classes. In this type of inheritance, several child classes inherit from a common base class. Each child class can have its own additional attributes and methods while also having access to the shared functionality provided by the parent class.

It’s a way to represent a one-to-many relationship between classes, and you can tailor each derived class to its specific needs while benefiting from the shared characteristics of the parent class. For example:

Example Code
import math class Point: def __init__(self, x, y): self.x = x self.y = y class Triangle: def __init__(self, point1, point2, point3): self.point1 = point1 self.point2 = point2 self.point3 = point3 def calculate_area(self): pass class EquilateralTriangle(Triangle): def __init__(self, point1, side_length): point2 = Point(point1.x + side_length, point1.y) point3 = Point(point1.x + side_length / 2, point1.y + (3 ** 0.5 / 2) * side_length) super().__init__(point1, point2, point3) def calculate_area(self): side_length = math.sqrt((self.point2.x - self.point1.x) ** 2 + (self.point2.y - self.point1.y) ** 2) area = (math.sqrt(3) / 4) * (side_length ** 2) return area pointA = Point(0, 0) equilateral_triangle = EquilateralTriangle(pointA, 5) area = equilateral_triangle.calculate_area() print(f"Area of the equilateral triangle: {area}")

Here, we are defining classes to work with geometric shapes, specifically triangles. First, we have a Point class that represents a point in a two-dimensional plane with its x and y coordinates. Next, we define a Triangle class, which is intended to be a base class for various types of triangles. It takes three points (point1, point2, and point3) as its attributes. However, in its calculate_area method, there is just a pass statement, indicating that this method is intended to be overridden by subclasses to calculate the area of different types of triangles.

EquilateralTriangle class inherits from Triangle class and is designed to represent equilateral triangles. In its constructor, it takes a starting point (point1) and a side length. Using this information, it calculates the coordinates of the other two points (point2 and point3) of the equilateral triangle. Then, in the overridden calculate_area, it calculates the area of the equilateral triangle using the side length and a mathematical formula for equilateral triangles.

Finally, we create an instance of the Point class, pointA, representing a point at coordinates (0, 0). We use this point to create an EquilateralTriangle instance, equilateral_triangle, with a side length of 5. We calculate the area of this equilateral triangle using its calculate_area method and print out the result.

Area of the equilateral triangle: 10.825317547305483

Overall, this example provides a basic structure for working with triangles, allowing you to calculate the area of equilateral triangles using specific formulas and principles of inheritance.

V. Hybrid Inheritance

Python hybrid inheritance is a combination of different types of inheritance, including single, multiple, and multilevel inheritance. In hybrid inheritance, you can inherit properties and functions from multiple base classes and create complex class hierarchies.

This approach offers a high degree of flexibility and allows you to model complex relationships and behaviors in your code. However, it also requires careful planning and management to avoid ambiguity and conflicts that can arise when inheriting from multiple sources. For instance:

Example Code
class Number: def __init__(self, value): self.value = value def is_prime(self): if self.value <= 1: return False if self.value <= 3: return True if self.value % 2 == 0 or self.value % 3 == 0: return False i = 5 while i * i <= self.value: if self.value % i == 0 or self.value % (i + 2) == 0: return False i += 6 return True class EvenNumber(Number): def __init__(self, value): super().__init__(value) def is_even(self): return self.value % 2 == 0 class PrimeEvenNumber(EvenNumber): def __init__(self, value): super().__init__(value) def display_info(self): if self.is_prime() and self.is_even(): print(f"{self.value} is both prime and even.") elif self.is_prime(): print(f"{self.value} is prime but not even.") elif self.is_even(): print(f"{self.value} is even but not prime.") else: print(f"{self.value} is neither prime nor even.") number = PrimeEvenNumber(17) number.display_info()

For this example, we crafted a program that utilizes a hierarchy of classes for checking whether a given number is prime, even, or both. Our program consists of three classes: Number, EvenNumber, and PrimeEvenNumber, each building upon the previous one. The Number class is base class and takes a value as its parameter during initialization. It contains a method called is_prime() that checks whether the given number is a prime number. The prime-checking logic involves several conditions and a loop to evaluate if the number is divisible by any other number except 1 and itself.

The EvenNumber class is derived from the Number class using inheritance. It inherits the is_prime() and adds a new method called is_even(), which checks if the number is even by checking if it’s divisible by 2. Lastly, PrimeEvenNumber class is derived from EvenNumber class. It inherits both the is_prime() and is_even() methods. It includes a display_info() method, which examines whether the number is prime, even, both, or neither and prints an appropriate message.

To showcase the functionality of these classes, we create an instance of PrimeEvenNumber with the value 17, and then we call its display_info() method.

17 is prime but not even.

As you can see, this approach enhances code reusability and allows for the creation of specialized classes that inherit and extend the behavior of more general ones, making it a useful technique in object-oriented programming.

Python Inheritance Advanced Examples

Now that you’ve developed a solid grasp of Python inheritance and have explored them in various scenarios, let’s delve into some advanced examples of this inheritance. This exploration will provide you with a clearer picture of this concept, which holds significant value in object-oriented programming.

I. Special Functions in Inheritance

Now that you have become acquainted with the various functionalities and forms of Python inheritance across different contexts, let’s delve into some special functions that play a crucial role in inheritance. These functions are essential aspects of the inheritance mechanism and will further enrich your understanding of this concept.

A. Python Inheritance and super() Function

The super() function in inheritance is used to call a method from a superclass within a subclass. It allows you to invoke a method in the parent class, enabling you to extend or override its behavior in the child class. By using super(), you can access and execute the parent class’s methods and attributes, maintaining a connection between the child and parent classes.

This is particularly useful when you want to add specific functionality to a method in the child class while still retaining the behavior of the parent class’s method. Consider the following illustration:

Example Code
class Number: def __init__(self, value): self.value = value def factorial(self): result = 1 for i in range(1, self.value + 1): result *= i return result class FactorialNumber(Number): def __init__(self, value): super().__init__(value) def display_factorial(self): fact = self.factorial() print(f"Factorial of {self.value} is {fact}") num = FactorialNumber(5) num.display_factorial()

In this example, we created two classes to illustrate the concept of inheritance and the use of super() function. First, there’s the Number class, which is the parent class. It has an __init__ method to initialize an object with a numeric value and a factorial method that calculates the factorial of that value. Inside the factorial method, a result variable is initialized to 1, and then a loop calculates the factorial by multiplying numbers from 1 to the given value.

Next, we have the FactorialNumber class, which is the child class and inherits from the Number class. It also has an __init__ method that takes a value and uses super().__init__(value) to call the constructor of the parent class, setting the numeric value. Additionally, it defines a display_factorial method. Inside this method, it calls the factorial method of the parent class using self.factorial(), calculates the factorial, and then prints out a message displaying the result. Finally, we create an instance of the FactorialNumber class with a value of 5 and call its display_factorial method.

Factorial of 5 is 120

This above example illustrates how you can utilize inheritance to reuse functionality from a base class while customizing and extending it in a derived class.

B. Python Inheritance and issubclass() Function

In python, issubclass() is used to evaluate whether a specific class is a subclass of another class, helping developers verify the inheritance relationship between classes.

It takes two arguments: the first being the class you want to examine, and the second being the potential parent class. If the function returns True, it confirms that the first class is indeed a subclass of the second class; otherwise, it returns False, indicating the absence of a subclass relationship. For example:

Example Code
class Series: def __init__(self, name): = name def describe(self): print(f"This is a {} series.") class ArithmeticSeries(Series): def __init__(self, name, common_difference): super().__init__(name) self.common_difference = common_difference def describe(self): super().describe() print(f"It has a common difference of {self.common_difference} between terms.") class GeometricSeries(Series): def __init__(self, name, common_ratio): super().__init__(name) self.common_ratio = common_ratio def describe(self): super().describe() print(f"It has a common ratio of {self.common_ratio} between terms.") class FibonacciSeries(Series): def __init__(self): super().__init__("Fibonacci") def describe(self): super().describe() print("It is a famous sequence where each term is the sum of the two preceding ones.") arithmetic = ArithmeticSeries("Arithmetic Progression", 5) geometric = GeometricSeries("Geometric Progression", 2) fibonacci = FibonacciSeries() print(issubclass(ArithmeticSeries, Series)) # True print(issubclass(GeometricSeries, Series)) # True print(issubclass(FibonacciSeries, Series)) # True arithmetic.describe() geometric.describe() fibonacci.describe()

Here, We start with a base class called Series, which has an __init__ to initialize the series’ name and a describe method to print a general description of the series. Next, we have three derived classes: ArithmeticSeries, GeometricSeries, and FibonacciSeries, each representing a specific type of mathematical series. These classes inherit from the Series class, which means they have access to its attributes and methods.

In derived classes, we override __init__ to add additional attributes specific to each series, such as the common difference for arithmetic series or the common ratio for geometric series. We also override the describe method to provide more detailed information about each series, while still utilizing the base class’s describe method to print a common description.

After defining these classes, we create instances of each series type: arithmetic, geometric, and fibonacci. Finally, we use the issubclass() function to check if each of  derived classes is a subclass of  Series base class, which returns True for all of them, indicating their inheritance relationships. We then call the describe method on each instance to display specific information about each type of series.

This is a Arithmetic Progression series.
It has a common difference of 5 between terms.
This is a Geometric Progression series.
It has a common ratio of 2 between terms.
This is a Fibonacci series.
It is a famous sequence where each term is the sum of the two preceding ones.

In summary, this method illustrates the utilization of inheritance with issubclass() method, enabling the creation of a class hierarchy where common functionality is shared, while also permitting customization in derived classes to represent various mathematical series.

C. Python Inheritance and isinstance() Function

You can also utilize isinstance() to verify whether an object belongs to a specific class or a set of classes. This function allows you to evaluate if an object is an instance of a particular class, providing a means to perform type checks and validate objects. It involves checking whether the object is of the expected class or any class within a specified set, returning True if it matches and False if it doesn’t.

This function becomes handy in situations where you need to ensure that objects conform to the expected types, especially when dealing with inheritance and polymorphism in Python programming. For instance:

Example Code
class Animal: def speak(self): pass class Dog(Animal): def speak(self): return "Woof!" class Cat(Animal): def speak(self): return "Meow!" dog = Dog() cat = Cat() is_dog_animal = isinstance(dog, Animal) is_cat_animal = isinstance(cat, Animal) print(f"Is the dog an instance of Animal? {is_dog_animal}") print(f"Is the cat an instance of Animal? {is_cat_animal}")

For this example, we are exploring the concept of inheritance with isinstance(). We start by defining a base class called Animal, which has a method speak() defined but doesn’t contain any specific implementation. This Animal class serves as a blueprint for other animal-related classes. We then create two subclasses, Dog and Cat, which inherit from Animal class. Each of these subclasses overrides speak() with its own implementation. The Dog class’s speak() method returns Woof! while Cat class’s speak() method returns Meow! This showcase how subclasses can customize the behavior inherited from parent class.

Next, we create instances of the Dog and Cat classes named dog and cat. These instances represent individual animals of their respective types. Finally, we use isinstance() to check whether each instance (dog and cat) is also an instance of  Animal class. We print the results, which indicate whether each instance is an instance of the Animal class.

Is the dog an instance of Animal? True
Is the cat an instance of Animal? True

This showcases how isinstance() can be used to evaluate the class hierarchy relationships between objects.

II. Exception Handling with Inheritance

Exception handling with Python inheritance is a concept where you create custom exception classes that inherit from built-in exception classes to handle specific types of errors in a more organized and meaningful way. By creating custom exception classes, you can define your own error messages and behaviors for different exceptional scenarios in your code.

By using this, you can make your code more robust and easier to debug, as it allows you to categorize and handle errors in a more structured manner. Consider below illustration:

Example Code
class CustomError(Exception): def __init__(self, message): super().__init__(message) class FileReadError(CustomError): pass class FileWriteError(CustomError): pass def read_file(filename): try: with open(filename, 'r') as file: content = return content except FileNotFoundError: raise FileReadError(f"File '{filename}' not found.") except IOError: raise FileReadError(f"Error reading file '{filename}'.") def write_file(filename, content): try: with open(filename, 'w') as file: file.write(content) except IOError: raise FileWriteError(f"Error writing to file '{filename}'.") try: file_content = read_file("example.txt") print("File content:") print(file_content) write_file("example.txt", "New content!") except FileReadError as e: print(f"File read error: {e}") except FileWriteError as e: print(f"File write error: {e}") except Exception as e: print(f"An unexpected error occurred: {e}")

In this example, we define a custom exception class CustomError that inherits from the built-in Exception class. Then, we create two more specific exception classes, FileReadError and FileWriteError, which inherit from CustomError. These custom exceptions are used to handle errors related to reading and writing files.

The read_file function attempts to read a file, and if it encounters a FileNotFoundError or IOError, it raises a FileReadError with a custom error message. Similarly, the write_file function raises a FileWriteError if it encounters an IOError while writing to a file. In the try block, we call these functions and catch the custom exceptions, providing meaningful error messages for each case.

File read error: File ‘example.txt’ not found.

This approach allows for more specific error handling and makes it easier to understand and manage errors in your code.

Now that you have gained a firm grasp of Python inheritance and have explored them in various scenarios, let’s delve into the theoretical aspects of inheritance. Understanding these theoretical concepts is crucial in programming as they play a significant role in shaping your coding practices and overall programming knowledge.

Advantages of Inheritance

Certainly! Here are the advantages of Python inheritance:

I. Code Reusability

You can reuse existing code from parent classes in your derived classes, reducing redundancy and promoting a more efficient coding practice.

II. Modularity

Inheritance allows you to organize your code into modular and hierarchical structures, making it easier to manage and maintain.

III. Extensibility

You can extend the functionality of a base class by adding or modifying methods and attributes in derived classes, enhancing the flexibility of your code.

Congratulations! You’ve now gained a deep understanding of Python inheritance, a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming (OOP). With inheritance, you can create organized and efficient code structures that promote code reusability, modularity, and extensibility. You’ve seen how it works through practical examples, explored various types of Python inheritance, and learned about special functions like super(), issubclass(), and isinstance().

You’ve also discovered how inheritance can be used in real-life scenarios, such as modeling mathematical series and handling exceptions more efficiently. By applying these concepts, you’re equipped to write cleaner, more maintainable, and robust Python code.

So, keep up the great work, and continue exploring the fascinating realm of Python programming. With your newfound knowledge of inheritance, you’re well on your way to becoming a more skilled Python developer. Happy coding!

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